Notes Normal helium atom A normal helium atom, also known as helium-4, is the most common and stable isotope of helium. In quantum mechanics, the description of a helium atom involves the application of ...

Notes Hamiltonian Formulation The Hamiltonian formulation is a mathematical approach in classical mechanics and quantum mechanics that provides an alternative description of the dynamics of a physical system. It is named after …

Notes Relativistic Hamiltonian for a charged particle The relativistic Hamiltonian for a charged particle in an external electromagnetic (EM) field can be derived from the relativistic Lagrangianwhere vector P = generalised momentum.The generalized …

Notes Relativistic Hamiltonian for charged particle in external electromagnetic field The relativistic Hamiltonian for a charged particle moving in an external electromagnetic field is derived from the Dirac equation, which is the relativistic quantum mechanical equation describing …

Notes Physical Significance of Hamiltonian The Hamiltonian in classical and quantum mechanics is a mathematical object that encodes the total energy of a physical system. It plays a central role in determining the time evolution ...

Notes Statistical mechanics Microscopic System: A system of atomic dimension or of smaller size is called microscopic system. Eg: a moleculeMacroscopic System: A system which is large enough to be observable ...