Notes Plasma Sheath The plasma is kept inside a vacuum chamber that is a finite size in all practical plasma systems. Think about a 1-D model where the plasma has no magnetic field ...

Notes Equation of motion for a damped oscillator of mass with resonant frequency Equation of motion for damped oscillator when an electron in an atom is acted by electric field.where ωo is the resonant frequency, m represents the mass of the ...

Notes Debye Model of Specific heat capacity According to the Einstein model, at low temperatures, the heat capacity falls off exponentially, or e-hw/KBT. However, the experimental curve demonstrates that specific heat drops at low temperatures …

Notes Dielectric loss Dielectric loss, also known as dielectric dissipation factor or loss tangent, refers to the energy loss that occurs in a dielectric material when it is subjected to an alternating electric ...

Notes Clausius- Mosotti relation between polarizability and dielectric constant The Clausius-Mosotti relation is an equation that relates the dielectric constant (ε) of a polar dielectric material to its molecular properties. It provides an approximate relationship between the …

Notes Vibrational modes of a diatomic linear lattice A diatomic linear lattice refers to a one-dimensional lattice structure composed of two different types of atoms. In this lattice, the atoms alternate along the linear array.The vibrational modes ...

Notes Monoatomic linear lattice A monoatomic linear lattice refers to a one-dimensional lattice structure composed of a single type of atom. In this lattice, the atoms are arranged in a linear, one-dimensional array.Each ...

Notes Effect of temperature on the intensity of Bragg's reflected beam. The intensity of Bragg's reflected beam in X-ray or neutron diffraction experiments is influenced by temperature through the Debye-Waller correction. As the temperature increases, the atomic …